The New York Times reports a Justice Department indictment released Monday — which accuses five Chinese military personnel of the cyberattacks — reads like a chronology of most of the major trade disputes between the United States and China during the past five years. In most instances, the documents say, the American company or union that defied Beijing ended up facing extensive break-ins by Chinese military hackers, in a pattern that could discourage further trade policy challenges. The Chinese government responded furiously on Tuesday, calling in the newly installed American ambassador, Max Baucus, to protest the release of the indictment, which was accompanied by F.B.I. “wanted” posters of Chinese soldiers in uniform. The Chinese foreign ministry and defense ministry vehemently denied any wrongdoing while accusing the United States of engaging in extensive intelligence gathering of its own.